Select Page

By Alan Macy, BIOPAC Systems, Inc

Electrocardiography (ECG) results in a graph of electrical activity of the heart (cardiac) muscle as it changes over time. Cardiac muscle contracts in response to electrical depolarization of the heart muscle cells. The ECG is the measured sum, over time, of this electrical activity as it is recorded from electrode connections.

Willem Einthoven’s contribution to ECG recording technology was the development of the string galvanometer that had improved sensitivity over the capillary electrometer. In 1908, Willem Einthoven published a description of a medically useful ECG recording system. This ECG system employed a specific lead connection method presently known as the Einthoven lead system. The Einthoven lead vectors are based on the assumption that the heart is located in a conductive volume. The Einthoven lead vectors are defined as:

Lead I: LA – RA

Lead II: LL – RA

Lead III: LL – LA


LA is Left Arm

LL is Left Leg

RA is Right Arm

The basic principle of the ECG is that periodic waves of propagated electrical stimulation cause cardiac muscle to alternately contract and relax. These electrical stimulation waves are transmitted from cardiac muscle cell to cell via gap junctions that connect between the cells. The electrical waves spread through the cardiac muscle cells because of cascaded changes in ions between intracellular and extracellular fluid. When the cardiac muscle cells are in a resting (polarized) state, the insides are negatively charged compared to the outsides. Cell membrane pumps maintain this electrically polarized state. Contraction of cardiac muscle is triggered by depolarization. Following depolarization, the cardiac muscle cells return to their resting charge. This process is called repolarization. These waves of depolarization and repolarization result in a changing electrical potential and can be detected by placing electrodes on the surface of the body.

The normal cardiac cycle begins with spontaneous depolarization of the sinoatrial (SA) node, a small volume of specialized tissue located in the right atrium. The SA node sets the rate of the heartbeat. The SA generated wave of electrical depolarization then spreads through the right atrium and across the inter-atrial septum into the left atrium causing the atria to contract. This contraction pushes blood into the ventricles. The atria are separated from the ventricles by a ring of non-conductive tissue. Accordingly, the only conductive path of electrical depolarization, from atria to ventricles, is through the atrioventricular (AV) node. The AV node is a cluster of cells in the center of the heart between the atria and ventricles. The AV node is a pathway that slows the electrical depolarization wave before it enters the ventricles. The wave of depolarization travels down the interventricular septum, through the His-Purkinje fiber network, to the left and right ventricles. The AV node delay gives the atria time to contract, before the ventricles do, to establish robust pumping action. In addition, with normal conduction, the two ventricles contract simultaneously to further maximize cardiac performance. After a volume of cardiac muscle cells depolarizes, the cells repolarize for the next cardiac cycle.

The net (average) path of electrical depolarization, through the heart, is known as the electrical axis. A fundamental ECG measurement principle is that when the wave of electrical depolarization travels toward a recording lead, this results in a positive voltage on that lead. When the wave travels away from a recording lead this results in a negative voltage on that lead. During repolarization, net wave activity towards or from a recording lead results in the opposite polarity as compared to depolarization.

The nature of the repolarization wave is different, from that of the depolarization wave, in that repolarization is not a propagating phenomenon. Cardiac muscle cell repolarization only occurs after the depolarization action potential duration, so cell repolarization does not depend on the repolarization of an adjoining cell. Assuming the action potential of all cells have equal duration, the repolarization wave would follow the same sequence as depolarization wave. However, in considering the entire extent of cardiac muscle, action potential duration is not identical between cells.

Meaning of ECG waves –

P wave: Depolarization of the right and left atria

QRS complex: Depolarization of the ventricles

T wave: Repolarization of ventricles

Meaning of ECG intervals –

PQ interval: Time period between start of atrial depolarization to start of ventricular depolarization

QRS duration: Time period of ventricular depolarization

QT interval: Time period between start of ventricular depolarization and end of ventricular repolarization

RR interval: Time period of complete cardiac cycle (inverse of heart rate).


For more information on BIOPAC’s wide range of tools for recording, displaying, and analyzing ECG measurements from human and animal subjects, visit BIOPAC’s electrocardiograpy, epages and view BIOPAC’s full line of electrodes, amplifiers, and wearable, wireless transmitters and loggers.

BIOPAC Systems, Inc. provides life science researchers and educators with data acquisition and analysis systems that inspire people and enable greater discovery about life. Visit us at

< Find more solutions at BIOPAC.COM
error: Content is protected !!