by Alan Macy, BIOPAC Systems, Inc.
EEG or Electroencephalography is the measurement of differences in electrical potential (voltage) between points on the scalp. These voltages differences are the result of ionic current flow within neurons, and glial cells, in the brain. The measured scalp voltages are primarily in the 200 nV-200 uV amplitude range, 0.01 Hz – 100 Hz frequency range, and are typically simultaneously recorded at multiple sites on the scalp. The EEG is usually collected using the 10-20 electrode montage. This arrangement of electrodes typically references left or right hemisphere electrodes to the left or right earlobe (or mastoid), respectively. However, a wide range of signal referencing methods are used depending on the situational requirements.
An EEG recording (knows as an electroencephalogram) can be short or long-term. Shorter-term, signal-averaged, EEG measurements are typically used to evaluate precognitive and cognitive processes with respect to specific stimuli. These EEG signals have relatively low amplitude levels, typically 200 nV – 2 uV, so signal averaging methods are required to discern these signals from background concurrent EEG sources. Longer-term, non-signal-averaged, EEG measurements are used to discern the subject’s, real-time, conscious state. Different and observable wave rhythms are evident during such recordings. Commonly observed rhythms include: Delta, Theta, Alpha, Beta and Gamma waves. These waves can be continuously recorded and are in the range of 2 uV – 200 uV.
Delta waves (0.5-4 Hz) are considered slow rhythms and tend to be the highest in amplitude. Delta waves are normally the dominant rhythm in infants. Delta waves are found in sleeping adults and consistent Delta is considered abnormal in conscious adults. Delta waves are low-frequency EEG patterns that increase during sleep in the normal adult. Although Delta waves are generally prominent during sleep, there are cases when Delta rhythms are recorded from awake individuals. Delta waves may increase during difficult mental activities requiring concentration and other continuous-attention tasks. Delta rhythms depend on activity of motivational systems, in the brain, and participate in the identification of prominent phenomena. The presence and amplitude of Delta rhythms are highly variable within and between individuals.
Theta waves (4-8 Hz) are considered slow rhythms. Theta waves are normal in children up to 13 years old. Theta waves are found in sleeping adults and consistent Theta is considered abnormal in conscious adults. Theta rhythms are low-frequency EEG patterns that increase during sleep in the normal adult. Although Theta rhythms are generally prominent during sleep, there are cases when theta rhythms are recorded from awake individuals. Theta rhythms are involved in memory and emotional regulation. Theta waves will spike during emotional responses to frustrating events or situations. Theta waves are associated with the inhibition of elicited responses, in that Theta activity has been found to temporarily increase when a person is actively trying to repress a behavioral response. The presence and amplitude of theta rhythms are highly variable within and between individuals.
Alpha waves (8-13 Hz) are considered moderate rhythms and usually seen in the occipital regions of the head and are higher in amplitude on the dominant side. Alpha waves appear when relaxing and closing the eyes. Alpha waves are suppressed when opening the eyes or coming to an alert state. Alpha waves are the primary rhythm observed in relaxed adults and are present during most of life after 13 years old. Each region of the brain has a characteristic Alpha rhythm amplitude and the largest Alpha waves are from the occipital and parietal regions of the cerebral cortex. Alpha rhythms correlate with inhibitory processes in the brain. Reduced Alpha wave occurrence and amplitude, in relation to Delta-Theta activity, is associated with reduced inhibitory control over behavior.
Beta waves (13-30 Hz) are considered fast rhythms. Beta waves are typically observed on both sides of the head and are most evident frontally (executive function). Beta waves may be substantially reduced in areas of cortical damage. Beta waves are considered normal and are the dominant rhythm in subjects whose eyes are open or are otherwise attentive to external stimuli or exerting specific mental effort. Beta rhythms also occur during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. In this situation, the typical Alpha rhythm is suppressed and supplanted by Beta waves. This replacement of Alpha rhythm is called desynchronization, or “Alpha block”, because it represents a change in the synchronized activity of neural systems in the brain. It is thought that Beta waves represents arousal of the cortex to a higher state of alertness and may also be associated with memory retrieval.
Gamma waves (30-100 Hz) are considered fast rhythms. Gamma waves are present during mixed sensory processing, such as perceptual tasks that combine hearing and seeing. Gamma waves are also evident during short-term memory matching of recognized sights, sounds or sensations. A reduction in Gamma wave activity might be associated with cognitive decline, especially when compared to Theta wave activity levels.
Long-term EEG signal characteristics are related to consciousness. As conscious activity increases, the dominant EEG rhythms shift to higher frequencies. When asleep, with the exception of REM, the dominant EEG rhythms move to lower frequencies. In deep sleep, the EEG is characterized by low frequency Delta waves.
This blog is continued in Part 2.
For more information on BIOPAC’s wide range of tools for recording, displaying, and analyzing EEG signals from human and animal subjects, including automated EEG analysis, seizure detection, evoked responses and many others, visit BIOPAC’s EEG Analysis or view BIOPAC’s full line of electrodes, amplifiers, and wearable, wireless transmitters and loggers.
BIOPAC Systems, Inc. provides life science researchers and educators with data acquisition and analysis systems that inspire people and enable greater discovery about life. Visit us at www.biopac.com.